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lunes, 7 de junio de 2010

GERUNDS

(Verb + -ing) Example: Learning can be fun.
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1. MEANING AND USE

• A gerund is a form of a verb that is used in place of a noun or a pronoun. A gerund has the same function as a noun or a pronoun in that it names something; in the case of a gerund, it names an activity that is usually expressed by a verb. A gerund can function as a subject of a sentence, as an object of a preposition, or as the object of a verb.

• A gerund may be used as the subject of a sentence. A subject gerund is used in statements such as opinions or for listing activities.
Examples: Walking is good for your heart.
ESL students learn 4 important skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

• A gerund may be the object of a preposition.
Example: The student is good at speaking.
A prepositional phrase beginning with by followed by a gerund explains how to do something. Example: You can model functional language for students by speaking naturally. Some combinations of prepositions or prepositional phrases followed by gerunds give alternatives.
Example: Instead of speaking, the students ought to be listening.

• A gerund may be the object of a verb.
Verbs and phases used to express likes, dislikes, and feelings may be followed by object gerunds.
Example: Elena enjoys playing basketball.
Object gerunds used in expressions related to recreational activities are frequently preceded by the verb go.
Example: Do you ever go snowboarding?
“Would you mind,” a common phrase used to express polite requests, may be followed by an object gerund.
Example: Would you mind opening the door for me?

2. FORM OF THE GRAMMAR

• To form a gerund, -ing is added to the simple form of the verb.
Example: talk + ing = talking Certain spelling rules must be followed to form gerunds:
a. For most verbs, a gerund is formed by adding –ing to the simple form of the verb. Examples: walk – walking, read – reading b. If the simple form of the verb ends in a single “e,” a gerund is formed by dropping the “e” and adding –ing. Examples: exercise – exercising, drive – driving c. If the simple form of the verb ends in “ie,” a gerund is formed by changing the “ie” to “y” and adding –ing. Examples: tie – tying, vie – vying d. If the simple form of a one-syllable verb ends with a single vowel + consonant, a gerund is formed by doubling the final consonant and adding –ing. Examples: shop – shopping, swim – swimming e. If the simple form of a verb with 2 or more syllables ends in a single vowel + consonant, a gerund is formed by doubling the final consonant only if the stress is on the final syllable. Examples: commit – committing (stress is on second syllable), combat – combating (stress is on first syllable)
Note: The final “l” is doubled in British English (travel – travelling), but not in American English (travel – traveling).
f. If the simple form of the verb ends in “x,” “w,” or “z,” the final consonant is not doubled when adding –ing. Examples: box – boxing, tow – towing, fly – flying

• A gerund can be one word or a phrase.
Examples: I enjoy swimming. I don’t enjoy painting my house.
• A gerund is always singular and acts like a noncount noun. • A gerund takes a singular verb and can be replaced by the pronoun it.
Example: I enjoy swimming. I enjoy it.
• A gerund can be positive or negative; a negative gerund is formed by adding the word not before the gerund.
Example: Not walking every day would be unhealthy for me.
• Many verbs are followed by gerunds, but may not be followed by infinitives (such as appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, go, imagine, keep mind)
Example: Have you considered taking a vacation when our class ends?
• Many common verbs with prepositions may be followed by a gerund, but not an infinitive (such as approve of, believe in, look forward to, talk about, think about, worry about).
Example: Do you ever think about taking a vacation?
• Many phrases ending in prepositions are BE + adjective expressions and may be followed by a gerund but not an infinitive.
Examples: ESL students are accustomed to learning grammar.
The student is nervous about speaking in front of the class.
• Some prepositions that occur with gerunds are frequently found at the beginning or the ending of a sentence (i.e. after, before, besides, by, in, in addition to, instead of, without).
Examples: Before sleeping, I like to have a snack. I will read a book instead of watching TV.

3. POTENTIAL PROBLEMS STUDENTS MAY HAVE • Meaning and Use: Students may use an infinitive when they ought to use a gerund or a gerund when they ought to use an infinitive.
Examples: (Error) She believes in to exercise regularly. (Correction) She believes in exercising regularly. (Error) He volunteers painting your house. (Correction) He volunteers to paint your house.
• Form: Students may see the –ing ending of a continuous verb and mistake it for a gerund.
Example: (Continuous verb) Elena has been playing basketball since she
was in middle school. (Gerund) Playing basketball has been a hobby of Elena’s since middle school.
• Form: Students may make spelling errors when adding –ing to the verb to form a gerund.
Example: (Error) She believes in exerciseing for good health. (Correction) She believes in exercising for good health.